In a March 2017 NATO urban warfare game, for instance, the teams played with 39 different hypothetical and actual technologies. 27 Rupert Smith, The Utility Of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World (London: Allen Lane, 2005). OPOT INOS1M GOV'T ACCOLUoU NO: S4 IPSUrS CATALLo MWuaoG SSC-TN-2625-16 I& TITLE tmd Ase) S. TVP9e OF mepoT a PemO1 covEuso SOVIET TACTICAL DOCTRINE FOR URBAN WARFARE Technical Note Indeed, it is striking in speaking to and reading the accounts of commanders of many post-Cold War operations how little they highlight the difficulties of urban environments as compared to other complaints. 47 See, the chapter on Beirut and the Reagan era intervention in Lebanon in Peter Huchthausen, America’s Splendid Little Wars: A Short History of U.S. Military Engagements, 1975-2000 (London: Viking, 2003), 45–64. Qualitative evidence on all sieges conducted inside Syria, where a majority of the prewar population lived in urban areas, shows how its regime forces constitute a prime example of this process. Boldness, simultaneity, coordinated action, and the like are principles of combat that have long been taught and applauded in every other tactical environment. See, John Spencer and John Amble, “A Better Approach to Urban Operations: Treat Cities Like Human Bodies,” Modern War Institute, Sept. 13, 2017, https://mwi.usma.edu/better-approach-urban-operations-treat-cities-like-human-bodies/. Towns and cities were thus repeatedly cleared, or at any rate temporarily pacified, only to be subsequently abandoned to insurgents. Some confronted them in the streets, some assailed them from the houses; while others, rushing forth without the wall through the upper gates, so disconcerted the guards at the ramparts, that they sprang down from their towers and retreated to their camp. 67 Project Metropolis: Military Operations in Urbanized Terrain, Battalion Level Experiments, Experiment After Action Report, Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory, May 7, 2001. However, regular force tactics must evolve. At some point, one eventually gets to Baghdad or Mosul, or to Aleppo or Raqqa. Indeed, on the day of the attack, President Ronald Reagan signed the order authorizing the military intervention in Grenada.48 This illustrates something that has typified the West’s “limited wars” since the era of decolonization: that although not always “low intensity” from the point of view of the immediate participants, politicians have always considered it a strategic option to pack up and go home (i.e., to lose), or move on to a different small war. 45 For further elaboration on this, see, David Betz and Anthony Cormack, “Iraq, Afghanistan and British Strategy,” Orbis 53, no. Its potential benefits, however, are numerous. Nicknamed “Baladia,” the Arabic word for “city,” the training area was built in 2005 in part by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at a cost of $45 million. Despite the fact that most of the soldiers that make up modern armies themselves live in cities, command and training establishments treat city fighting distinctly differently — they are more risk-averse and less bold, more rule-bound and less imaginative, and ultimately less able to innovate. It was not a strategically planned gambit.  Meanwhile, the attackers tend to become more exposed than the defender as they must use the open streets more often, unfamiliar with the defenders' secret and hidden routes. 2 See the list of urban warfare characteristics in, Joint Urban Operations, Joint Publication 3-06 (Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Nov. 20, 2013), I-5–I-9. Put simply, Western soldiers have numerous advantages over the enemy. However, when defense budgets are under pressure, savings are often found by cutting travel alongside other activities. Fuel, electricity, water, food, shelter, medical facilities, communications facilities, places where repairs can be done, and the equipment with which to do such repairs are abundant in metropolitan settings — and in short supply outside of them — precisely because of the densely interconnected nature of the city. Many of the challenges of urban warfare are not new; nor, unfortunately, are the options soldiers have to confront these challenges. Finally, the dependence of some adversaries on one or more urban areas for their own sustainment — logistics, popular support, and so on — are potential centers of gravity that can be attacked. Though the density of habitation may change, war remains a human endeavor that takes place among people.42 When it comes to warfare on land, there is no unpeopled place where combat can occur without reference to noncombatants, as though in a gladiatorial ring where bloodied fighters are clearly sequestered from the onlookers.43. 104 Martin Coward, Urbicide: The Politics of Urban Destruction (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2009), 15. But regardless, having the right environment in which to train is the most important factor. Military forces might need to reorganize and augment their MEDEVAC and medical treatment capabilities to deal with numbers of WIA that could exceed any historical precedent. guerrilla tactics to confront Americans as they approached Baghdad along with some foreign . Gen. Krulak’s predictions have come true. But reports from practitioners at the tactical level and in training establishments, coupled with examples from military history, falsify this thesis. Famously described as the “Jewish Benedict Arnold,” he was quite literally owned by Titus and was conscious of the need to preserve and advance the celebrity of his master.31 Thus, one must read between the lines of this account to see that what it describes is a tactical blunder by Titus, who advanced his troops prematurely through a too-small breach, and was then rescued from disaster by a competent subordinate, in addition to artillery support. While many tactics and general principles will remain the same, there are some very important differences between high-intensity conventional urban combat and the sort of precision Close Quarters Battle (CQB) that the U.S. military has grown accustomed to practicing over the past seventeen years. Defenders can move from one part of the city to another undetected using underground tunnels and spring ambushes. There is no equivalent scholarly research on this subject in the civil sphere and we suspect, based on our research, that there is none in military circles either.12. Is it sophisticated enough to accurately simulate the effects of various weapons? It creates certain challenges but at the same time creates opportunities. In the third section, we show how a narrow view of the history of urban warfare, particularly one that is resolutely focused on the experience of one titanic and highly peculiar battle — Stalingrad — distorts perceptions of the problem at hand and its potential solutions. Neither is any Western army up to such a task without an extraordinary concentration of effort that is politically implausible and therefore strategically tenuous. This, essentially, is the essence of the aforementioned “strategic corporal” effect. We also participated in numerous professional symposia on the subject, seminars, simulations, and wargames, mostly with the British Army (though nearly always with an international presence), as well as NATO. Western politicians will continue to have the urge to intervene militarily in other countries for one reason or another, whether good, bad, or imagined. Unequivocally, significant political consequences may follow from a soldier pulling the trigger. Military operations invariably have an impact on the urban landscape — even small arms can be devastating to structures — and there is no straightforward, correct answer to whether and to what extent it is acceptable to damage a city in pursuit of a political objective. Peniakoff would have asked for the same thing, as would have Wellington, or Marlborough, or any of the great captains of history all the way back to Alexander the Great. 4 Krulak writes in his article that “we” will be drawn into such wars, referring to the United States Marine Corps. To return to Rommel, whom we quoted earlier, the kind of quick and fluid action that he sought in his troops begins long before the fight: The commander must always strive to make his troops aware of the latest in tactical theory and developments, with a view to learning and applying the practical experience on the battlefield. As ever, force packages should be configured to deal with the threat presented by the enemy. Combined arms operations, including the use of armor, are likely to continue to have a significant role in any future major urban conflict. The military applications of this for planning, simulation, and training are significant, if it can be made robust enough for the field, and if the scanning devices are light enough to be deployed on an unmanned aerial vehicle. Home Army soldiers assault a fortified house in downtown Warsaw during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Yet, civilians may be evacuated, limiting their exposure to harm, and it is sometimes possible to fight in a way that mitigates collateral damage, even when civilians are present throughout the battle. For one thing, civilian observation and digital connectedness could be an intelligence resource to friendly forces. It must be said that Britain lately has been more guilty of this than the United States. AR-15 AK platform AKSU-74 Shotgun. 78 Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, Rommel and His Art of War, ed. 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