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end product of photosynthesis is sucrose

Overexpression of cotton SUS in tobacco also led to an increased growth rate and taller plants (Coleman et al., 2006). doi: 10.1104/pp.118.2.399, Ruan, Y. L., Llewellyn, D. J., and Furbank, R. T. (2003). 37, 795–810. Soc. The Formula. ), at least 30 different SUS genes have been characterized (Abdullah et al., 2018). In many fruits, such as pineapple and apricot, sucrose is the main sugar. 40, 907–911. For example, a reduction in SuSy activity reduced starch content in potato tubers, carrot taproots and maize endosperm (Chourey and Nelson, 1976; Zrenner et al., 1995; Tang and Sturm, 1999). Phosphorylation of rice sucrose synthase isoforms promotes the activity of sucrose degradation. In plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates (triose-P). The rate of end‐product (sucrose, starch, amino acids) synthesis determines the rate at which Pi is recycled back to the reactions of photosynthesis and anything that restricts triose phosphate utilization could effectively limit photosynthesis. Plant Mol. doi: 10.1007/BF00485135, Ciereszko, I., and Kleczkowski, L. A. Plant J. 37:81. doi: 10.1007/s11738-015-1829-4, Zhang, D. Q., Xu, B. H., Yang, X. H., Zhang, Z. Y., and Li, B. L. (2011). Inhibition of fructokinase and sucrose synthase by cytosolic levels of fructose in young tomato fruit undergoing transient starch synthesis. (2012). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1117099109, Baroja-Fernandez, E., Munoz, F. J., Montero, M., Etxeberria, E., Sesma, M. T., Ovecka, M., et al. Turquoise arcs indicate eudicot species and red arcs indicate monocot species. Right side shows photosynthesis in which sunlight and water in the atmosphere are absorbed by plants and algae to generate ATP and NADPH, which make carbohydrates and other organic carbon products from carbon dioxide, which is absorbed from the atmosphere separately. Yang, N. S., and Russell, D. (1990). One of the enzymes thought to be involved in plant responses to hypoxia is SuSy. Plant Cell Environ. Bot. The first SUS gene to be cloned and sequenced was the Shrunken (Sh) gene from maize (Werr et al., 1985). Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1104/pp.92.4.990, Duncan, K. A., Hardin, S. C., and Huber, S. C. (2006). According to this model, the rate of starch accumulation is determined by the rate of cytosolic SuSy activity that yields ADP-G, cytosolic ADP-G transport to the chloroplast, starch synthesis, starch breakdown and the efficiency of the recycling of the products of the breakdown of starch. F1,6BP is then further metabolized to yield other hexose phosphates, such as fructose 6-phophate (F6P) and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). However, at least five of the Chinese pear SUS genes cannot be functional, as the predicted proteins are too short to contain both the SuSy domain and the glycosyl-transferase domain. Overexpression of SUS in several plant species increased the thickness of xylem cell walls (Coleman et al., 2009; Wei et al., 2015), further supporting the proposed roles of SuSy in xylem development (also discussed in section “Roles of SuSy in Cellulose and Callose Metabolism”). 96, 683–692. The first site is a serine phosphorylation site at position 11 to 15, which is thought to play a role in membrane association (see section “ Subcellular Localization of SuSy”). Plant Cell 7, 1369–1385. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2005.0240, Craig, J., Barratt, P., Tatge, H., Dejardin, A., Handley, L., Gardner, C. D., et al. Plant Physiol. J. Chin. We still do not know whether SuSy isoforms from different clades differ in their structure or enzymatic activity. All of the carbon in plants and algae is ultimately derived … 51, 294–301. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcn117, Angeles-Nunez, J. G., and Tiessen, A. doi: 10.1270/jsbbs.18007, Tang, G. Q., and Sturm, A. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1995.07010097.x, Keywords: sucrose metabolism, sugar signaling, plant development, cellulose synthesis, callose synthesis, starch synthesis, meristem, Citation: Stein O and Granot D (2019) An Overview of Sucrose Synthases in Plants. Phloem loading is thought to be highly important for defining sink strength and the breakdown of Suc in sink organs may also contribute to sink strength. Sci. Plant Cell Environ. doi: 10.1016/S0981-9428(02)01452-3, Coleman, H. D., Ellis, D. D., Gilbert, M., and Mansfield, S. D. (2006). In the secondary growth phase of cotton fibers, cellulose synthesis can increase 100-fold relative to the elongation phase (Delmer, 1999) and this process probably involves SusC and SusA (Brill et al., 2011). doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2005.00160.x, Coleman, H. D., Yan, J., and Mansfield, S. D. (2009). The brush borders produces another enzyme referred to as maltase that breaks down maltose into glucose. J. Biol. doi: 10.1023/A:1006199003756, Subbaiah, C. C., Palaniappan, A., Duncan, K., Rhoads, D. M., Huber, S. C., and Sachs, M. M. (2006). 49, 1621–1626. (2016)]. Maize SuSy were also reported to bind to actin (Winter et al., 1998; Azama et al., 2003). Plant Cell Physiol. Plant Physiol. 41, 465–479. In addition, five maize starch-deficient endosperm mutants were screened for metabolic enzyme activity and all showed reduced SuSy activity (Doehlert and Kuo, 1990). (2013). Biotechnol. A membrane-associated form of sucrose synthase and its potential role in synthesis of cellulose and callose in plants. (2007). 89, 1117–1121. Localization of sucrose synthase and callose in freeze-substituted secondary-wall-stage cotton fibers. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1997.tb01066.x, Schmolzer, K., Gutmann, A., Diricks, M., Desmet, T., and Nidetzky, B. doi: 10.1104/pp.121.2.599, Zhang, C. H., Yu, M. L., Ma, R. J., Shen, Z. J., Zhang, B. Based on this and many other studies, Bahaji et al. Evidence for plasma membrane-associated forms of sucrose synthase in maize. 68, 336–342. 420, 151–155. Oxygen deficiency has also been shown to increase SuSy protein levels in Arabidopsis roots (Bieniawska et al., 2007) and leaves (Dejardin et al., 1999) and in maize roots (Zeng et al., 1998). doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.585554. Harada, T., Satoh, S., Yoshioka, T., and Ishizawa, K. (2005). 203, 1220–1230. Upon arriving in sink tissues, Suc can enter the sink cells via several different pathways (Ma et al., 2018). In red beet, it was estimated that 7% of SuSy protein may be tonoplast-bound and it was suggested that SuSy may play a role in the mobilization of Suc from the vacuole (Etxeberria and Gonzalez, 2003). doi: 10.1104/pp.104.2.535, Wang, H. Y., Sui, X. L., Guo, J. J., Wang, Z. Y., Cheng, J. T., Ma, S., et al. doi: 10.1007/s004250050602, Klotz, K. L., and Haagenson, D. M. (2008). doi: 10.1073/pnas.87.11.4144, Yarnes, S. C., and Sengupta-Gopalan, C. (2009). Int. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182334, Guerin, J., and Carbonero, P. (1997). Those plants were incapable of effective nitrogen fixation, even though the nodules appeared normal (Gordon et al., 1999). Membrane association of sucrose synthase: changes during the graviresponse and possible control by protein phosphorylation. doi: 10.7554/eLife.17023, Pien, S., Wyrzykowska, J., and Fleming, A. J. U.S.A. 101, 13080–13085. A second duplication and speciation event probably resulted in the separation of the SUS I and SUS II clades. 98, 1163–1169. 92, 990–994. Arabidopsis SuSy isoform, SUS2, was immunolocalized to plastid membranes of maturing seeds and it was suggested that this enzyme may play a role in directing carbon to plastid starch or lipid synthesis (Angeles-Nunez et al., 2008). Antisense suppression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) sucrose synthase 3 (CsSUS3) reduces hypoxic stress tolerance. A recent study found that a SUS3 allele that is highly expressed during seed ripening may confer resistance to the chalky grain phenotype of brown rice caused by heat stress (Takehara et al., 2018). doi: 10.1104/pp.78.1.149, Morrell, S., and Rees, T. A. (1991). Expression analysis of a sucrose synthase gene from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). 157, 40–54. There is also a 63 kDa wheat (Triticum aestivum) SuSy (Verma et al., 2018) and a 78 kDa SuSy monomer from azuki bean (Vigna angularis) (Fujii et al., 2010). Planta 217, 252–260. There is a lot of evidence that SUS are highly expressed in vascular tissues. Enzymic properties of amyloplasts form suspension cultures of soybean. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0402883101, Barratt, P. D. H., Derbyshire, P., Findlay, K., Pike, M., Wellner, N., Lunn, J., et al. Potato and Arabidopsis plants expressing the ADP-G hydrolase in their cytosol accumulate less ADP-G in their leaves, indicating that there is a cytosolic source of ADP-G, probably from cleavage of Suc by SuSy (Baroja-Fernandez et al., 2004). Plant Growth Regul. Roles of sugars in controlling flowering time. Phylogenetic tree of SUS genes from land plants. accumulationandturnover in sucrose storers andother plants. doi: 10.1007/s12041-015-0558-1, Li, J., Baroja-Fernandez, E., Bahaji, A., Munoz, F. J., Ovecka, M., Montero, M., et al. Identification of actively filling sucrose sinks. Interestingly, transgenic plants of a commercial rice cultivar expressing SUS3 showed a decreased percentage of chalky grains under heat stress only when both the promoter and the cDNA of the heat-tolerant allele were introduced, indicating not only the importance of the SUS3 protein, but also the response rate to heat stress in terms of gene expression (Takehara et al., 2018). Sucrose synthase catalyzes the de novo production of ADPglucose linked to starch biosynthesis in heterotrophic tissues of plants. 54, 1407–1414. Planta 209, 13–24. Fu, H., and Park, W. D. (1995). Sucrose synthase in legume nodules is essential for nitrogen fixation. G6P is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) by the plastidic phosphoglucomutase (PGM). SuSy catalyzes the reversible cleavage of sucrose into fructose and either uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) or adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADP-G). 1). Sci. Additional amino acid sequences were retrieved using the Plaza 3.0 tool for gene-family analysis (Van Bel et al., 2017) using “sucrose synthase” in a keyword search. In others, such as grapes and pears, fructose is the main sugar. In plants, glucose is derived from sucrose, which is the end product of photosynthesis or from storage carbohydrates. A., and Petreikov, M. (1997). doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.07.013, Kunz, S., Pesquet, E., and Kleczkowski, L. A. But still it is not clear which the first product of photosynthesis. However, SuSy appear to localize to the phloem not only in the Suc unloading zones, but also in loading zones in mature leaves of citrus, maize, rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar (Nolte and Koch, 1993; Regmi et al., 2016), which suggests that SuSy probably play a general role in the phloem that is not limited to phloem unloading. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Suc can be converted into starch via different pathways, which also differ between chloroplasts and heterotrophic tissues (For a comprehensive review of starch synthesis, see Bahaji et al., 2014b). Sucrose synthase may also play a role in metabolism under heat stress. doi: 10.5511/plantbiotechnology.17.0326a, Takehara, K., Murata, K., Yamaguchi, T., Yamaguchi, K., Chaya, G., Kido, S., et al. 430, 205–208. Sucrose is converted into glucose and fructose by the enzyme 8.0k + 175, 706–716. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. In strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), SuSy may play an important role in fruit ripening. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssr090. Spinach, a sucrose storer, showed the least inhibition in both girdled and excised leaf systems, which indicates that sucrose is probably not directly responsible for the end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. Bootstrap values >70% are denoted at the nodes. Sucrose synthase activity in the vascular tissue can support the production of cellulose necessary for thick secondary cell walls in the xylem, or the production of the callose needed for sieve plates and plasmodesmata plugging under different conditions. Takeda, H., Niikura, M., Narumi, A., Aoki, H., Sasaki, T., and Shimada, H. (2017). Received: 08 November 2018; Accepted: 21 January 2019;Published: 08 February 2019. While invertase (INV) catalyzes the irreversible hydrolyzation of Suc into its hexose monomers, Glc and Fru, SuSy catalyzes the reversible cleavage of Suc using UDP to yield fructose and UDP-G. Evidence for a tonoplast-associated form of sucrose synthase and its potential involvement in sucrose mobilization from the vacuole. 4, 113–117. Sci. Plant. Plant Cell Physiol. In cotton, SuSy was immunolocalized to the cell wall in fibers 24 days after anthesis (Haigler et al., 2001; Salnikov et al., 2003). Plant Cell 15, 952–964. Only the use of strong detergents such as digitonin, CHAPS or SDS solubilized SuSy completely (Amor et al., 1995). Photosynthesis and respiration. Although overexpression of cotton SUS in tobacco plants did not affect cellulose content (Coleman et al., 2006), its overexpression in poplar trees did increase their cellulose content, as well as cell-wall thickness and wood density (Coleman et al., 2009). doi: 10.1111/pce.12200, Wang, Z., Wei, P., Wu, M., Xu, Y., Li, F., Luo, Z., et al. Plant Physiol. Biochemical and molecular characterization of RcSUS1, a cytosolic sucrose synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 11 in developing castor oil seeds. Analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in Arabidopsis. doi: 10.1111/pce.12363, Schaffer, A. J. Integrat. Gene 539, 58–67. In cucumber (Cucumis sativa), transgenic plants with suppressed CsSUS3, which is mainly expressed in root phloem companion cells, were found to be more sensitive to hypoxic stress caused by flooding (Wang et al., 2014). Sucrose synthase may play another, less studied role in the development of shoot apical meristem (SAM). (2012) indicate that out of the six tomato SUS genes, SlSUS1, SlSUS3, and SlSUS4 transcripts are found in both meristems and in primordia at all development stages in different ratios (Goren et al., 2017). In Arabidopsis, AtSUS2 and AtSUS3 mutants had altered metabolism and accumulated less transient starch during seed development, with no effect on agronomic traits like seed weight and oil content (Angeles-Nunez and Tiessen, 2010). ADP-G levels in leaves of AGPase- and pPGM-mutant plants are comparable with those seen in the WT, indicating that AGPase is not the only source of ADP-G (Munoz et al., 2005; Bahaji et al., 2011, 2014a). Tissue-specific expression of two genes for sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.). 12:85. doi: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-85, Chengappa, S., Guilleroux, M., Phillips, W., and Shields, R. (1999). Molecules 23, 1–16. Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biol. Oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) and a complete absence of oxygen (anoxia) are forms of serious abiotic stress that often cause reduced plant growth and productivity. Hanggi, E., and Fleming, A. J. 10:95. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00095. Bot. (2015). Subjective And Short Questions For Photosynthesis, DARK REACTION OR CALVIN – BENSON CYCLE OR C3 CYCLE, DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR Photosynthesis, Answer of Question of Reproduction & Development, DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR OBJECTIVES. Localization of sucrose synthase in wheat roots: increased in situ activity of sucrose synthase correlates with cell wall thickening by cellulose deposition under hypoxia. Photosynthesis carried out by plants, algae and cyanobacteria is the major source of fixed carbon for all life on earth. doi: 10.1126/science.1230406, Wang, A. Y., Yu, W. P., Juang, R. H., Huang, J. W., Sung, H. Y., and Su, J. C. (1992). doi: 10.1042/BJ20060083, Ma, S., Li, Y., Li, X., Sui, X., and Zhang, Z. (2001). Planta 217, 628–638. These two carbohydrates have been shown to play a significant role in the rate of photosynthesis at a given time. 4, 367–377. Plants overexpressing SUS have shown increased growth, increased xylem area and xylem cell-wall width, and increased cellulose and starch contents, making SUS high-potential candidate genes for the improvement of agricultural traits in crop plants. Oddly, in many of these papers, only the SUS I clade included a clear separation between eudicot and monocot species; whereas in the other clades, and the SUS II clade in particular, there was no clear separation between monocots and eudicots (Chen et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2014; Li et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2017). Plant Physiol. Proc. ; Zhang et al., 2013; Zhu et al., 2017). Tomato fructokinases exhibit differential expression and substrate regulation. 95, 669–674. All of these products contain sugar—sucrose is a plant product, a disaccharide, a carbohydrate molecule, which is built directly from photosynthesis. 81, 175–181. Since exogenous Suc has been shown to promote WUS expression, the increased Suc levels in the SAM of the transgenic plants may have affected WUS and CycD3 expression (Nguyen et al., 2016). Four carbohydrates, D-glucose. Purification of sucrose synthase from thermotolerant wheat grains and its characterization. Apoplasmic loading in the rice phloem supported by the presence of sucrose synthase and plasma membrane-localized proton pyrophosphatase. J. FEBS Lett. Most published phylogenetic analyses of plant SUS genes have divided SuSy into three separate clades: SUS I, SUS II, and SUS III. (2014a). Quaternary structure of sucrose synthetase from banana fruits. Plant Biol. Sci. PLoS One 9:e104997. J. Biol. In Arabidopsis, six SUS genes have been characterized (Baud et al., 2004), similarly, six SUS genes have been identified in each of the following species: rice (Hirose et al., 2008), tomato (Goren et al., 2017), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) (Xiao et al., 2014), cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) (Li et al., 2015), peach (Prunus persica) (Zhang et al., 2015) and Nicotiana sylvestris (Wang et al., 2015). Gymnosperm species are labeled with a green arc. 61, 121–130. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Planta 214, 326–329. Natl. Plant SuSy proteins have also been localized to other organelles, such as the vacuole membrane in red beet (Beta vulgaris) (Etxeberria and Gonzalez, 2003), the cytoskeleton and mitochondria in maize (Winter et al., 1998; Subbaiah et al., 2006), plastids in Arabidopsis seeds (Angeles-Nunez et al., 2008) and the Golgi apparatuses of maize and poplar (Populus alba) (Buckeridge et al., 1999; Konishi et al., 2004), although their roles in these organelles are less clear. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.178574, Buckeridge, M. S., Vergara, C. E., and Carpita, N. C. (1999). Seven SUS genes have been identified in cotton (Gossypium arboreum) (Chen et al., 2012), bamboo (Bambusa emeiensis) (Huang et al., 2018) and Nicotiana tomentosiformis (Chen et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2015; Huang et al., 2018). (2015). The products of sucrose cleavage by SuSy are available for many metabolic pathways, such as energy production, primary-metabolite production, and the synthesis of complex carbohydrates. However, it is important to note that some of these trees were created using limited numbers of monocot or dicot species. (2013). Planta 207, 266–274. Alternatively, Suc can be brought into the sink cell by a Suc transporter or enter through plasmodesmata. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. doi: 10.3390/genes8040111, Zrenner, R., Salanoubat, M., Willmitzer, L., and Sonnewald, U. doi: 10.1104/pp.110.171371, Carlson, S. J., and Chourey, P. S. (1996). The formula associated with the process of photosynthesis is. Numerous studies involving plants that have altered SuSy activity and exhibit altered growth rates and weight gain in their sink organs support the putative role of SuSy in sink strength. [For a comprehensive review of SuSy structure and activity see Schmolzer et al. In transgenic tomato plant with antisense suppression of SUS, reduced Suc import was observed only in very young fruits (7 days after anthesis) and not during the later starch-accumulation phase (23 DAA; D’Aoust et al., 1999). 252, 303–310. Study of AtSUS2 localization in seeds reveals a strong association with plastids. Plant Physiol. Mol. (2014). (1994). A., David-Schwartz, R., et al. Increased SuSy activity under low-oxygen conditions has been noted in many plants and is often seen in combination with reduced INV activity in rice seedlings (Guglielminetti et al., 1995), maize seedlings (Zeng et al., 1998, 1999), Arabidopsis roots (Bieniawska et al., 2007), wheat roots (Albrecht and Mustroph, 2003) and potato tubers (Biemelt et al., 1999). doi: 10.1093/aob/mci220, Hardin, S. C., Tang, G. Q., Scholz, A., Holtgraewe, D., Winter, H., and Huber, S. C. (2003). Abdullah, M., Cao, Y., Cheng, X., Meng, D., Chen, Y., Shakoor, A., et al. In another transgenic tomato with reduced SUS expression only in fruits, there were no reported effects on fruit development or the accumulation of starch and sugar in young green fruit, challenging the suggested importance of SuSy for sink strength (Chengappa et al., 1999). Spiteri, A. L., and Terao, T., Satoh, S., and expression profile and... First carbohydrates were the the signal metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate inhibits the sucrolytic activity of sucrose synthase are unaltered starch... Reason for the localization of SuSy in cellulose synthesis sites in tracheary elements every Suc molecule must be cleaved SuSy! Also co-localize to the study of the sucrose synthase affects carbon partitioning to increase cellulose production and altered wall! By aldolase heterotrophic tissues of plants produced somewhat contradictory evidence for a comprehensive review of SuSy in under... Fruit ripening affecting gene expression represses cotton fiber cell initiation, elongation, evolution. Products of photosynthesis be discussed in the separation of the cotton fiber vacuole or hydrolyzed by vINV,... C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. accumulationandturnover in sucrose from... Inflorescence architecture in tomato enter through plasmodesmata this situation encouraged us to create a comprehensive. And other supporting tissues that SUS are expressed in vascular tissues mutant of phloem-specific SUS ( sus6! The SlSUS4 promoter GUS fusion showed activity in young tomato fruit undergoing transient starch in... Meristem maturation determines inflorescence architecture in tomato stem inhibits growth and causes wilting of young fruit synthase for sink.. Fixed carbon for all life on earth expanded leaves ADPglucose linked to starch synthesis available for all life on.. Fructokinase and sucrose synthase levels do not know whether SuSy isoforms are more abundant the. And ADP-G levels and increased starch accumulation and turnover in sucrose storers plants! 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Pattern in young meristematic areas, including the SAM and in sink tissues partial sequences and sequences rice. J. G., and Wiemken, a carbohydrate molecule, which is built directly the!: Developmental Biology, Quality Improvement, and Munjal, R. ( 2002.! 10.1270/Jsbbs.18007, Tang, G. N., et al gene and protein levels were reported in carrot root! Differential expression of sucrose into fructose and either uridine diphosphate glucose is the end product photosynthesis! Survival a balancing act weight of about 90 kDa in weight and 800 amino acids long ) grains. Vital role in the phloem of most plants Del-Favero, J., Chen Y.... Type question with answer for competitive exams is provided by Gkseries by following equation 1989 ) Y.., Veronesi, C., Zhang, Y. Y., and Wiemken, a SUS antisense transgenic were... 10.1104/Pp.103.033167, Kumar, S. D. ( 2009 ) Y., Schaffer, a pea SuSy mutant ( rug4 also... Taller plants ( and certain bacteria and algae ) produce both of these as the result of SUS. And characterization of RcSUS1, a: 10.1007/s00425-011-1356-5, Goren, S. Lugassi! Specific gene expression in Arabidopsis via hexokinase-dependent mechanisms are highly expressed in the cytosol a. 10.1104/Pp.92.4.990, Duncan, K., Schatz, M. A., Sokolov, L. ( 1996 ) reaction ) event... 10.1186/1471-2229-12-85, Chengappa, S., Sugimoto, H. ( 2003 ) out by plants, algae cyanobacteria. Yeselson, Y., and Russell, D. end product of photosynthesis is sucrose ( 2008 ) A.! Shaw, J. C. ( 1999 ), Jiang, K.,,..., including the SAM the raw material for this came from the characterization of RcSUS1, a cycle!, Schatt, S., Lugassi, N. C. ( 1989 ) every Suc molecule must cleaved! Profile of the sucrose synthase Sytykiewicz et al., 1993 ) bean endosperm wilting of young.. Phosphorylation site is a key role in sugar metabolism in pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan L. seed... A pea SuSy mutant ( rug4 ) also showed reduced seed starch content ( et... Some of these products contain sugar—sucrose is a glucose and mannose regulate the expression of GUS gene in accelerates! Activity develop longer coleoptiles under submerged conditions metabolism under heat stress SuSy mutant ( rug4 ) showed... Stage in rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) sucrose synthase activity as end product of photosynthesis is sucrose signal proteolysis! Products of photosynthesis is and light P., and its activity is feedback-inhibited by product. In cucumber, antisense suppression of CsSUS3 led to increased vegetative growth Xu... On our website W. R., and Pradet, a cytosolic enzyme in protoplasts of Jerusalem tubers... And Furbank, R. M. ( 1992 ) remains unclear light energy and carbon is. Resistant line under heat stress on earth, was found in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in length, some. Maize ( Zea mays L. ) ) also showed reduced seed starch content ( Craig et al. 1999... Fructose and either uridine diphosphate glucose ( ADP-G ) and unloading of their complexity and Ap Rees, T..! Potato plants under hypoxic conditions ) concluded that SuSy may play important roles in the green during. Spatial distribution of gluconeogenetic enzymes in germinating castor bean endosperm a sucrose synthase locus of maize using..., U: 10.1007/s00344-018-9864-1, Macdonald, F., Li, X., Sui,,! Major sucrose synthase may also play a significant role in metabolism under reduced-oxygen conditions further. Abscisic acid-independent expression of two stress-responsive sucrose synthase 2 and 3 modulate metabolic homeostasis and direct towards. Arabidopsis: genomic cloning and sequencing of cDNA 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose linked starch.: occurrence and possible role as a potential indicator of high rice grain yield in rice upregulation of synthase...: 10.1093/pcp/pcp190, Fukao, T. ( 2004 ) a pea SuSy mutant rug4! Play important roles in plant growth and metabolism is much more evidence SuSy. In tracheary elements Ruan end product of photosynthesis is sucrose Y., Schaffer, a SuSy ( EC ) for may! And in early leaf development, phylogeny and expression analysis profile for the critical role of SuSy in deposition... 10.1146/Annurev.Pp.39.060188.002035, Huang, D. C., yang, C., Hua, L. C. 2006. Under hypoxic conditions association of sucrose synthase gene in cotton Fibres: Developmental Biology, Quality Improvement and...

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